عزيزى الزائر عند قيامك بعمليه التسجيل
يستوجب عليك تنشيط حسابك من خلال رساله
تصل إليك على بريدك الالكترونى حتى يكتمل التسجيل

مع تحيات إداره المنتدى
د/على نور


نداء استغاثه

اذهب الى الأسفل

نداء استغاثه

مُساهمة من طرف wessam في الثلاثاء 16 فبراير 2010, 9:51 pm

انا بستغيث ............خلاص تعبت انا بعمل بحث عن animal crime scene والمصدر الوحيد للشغل ده هو النت وكل ما ادور واقرا ابحاث تطلع بتتكلم عن بشرى
هو مفيش جزء للطب الشرعى فالحيوانات ولا الدنيا ماشيه ازاى ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟
طيب اعمل ايه؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟انصحونى ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟
اجيب كتاب الشرعى بتاع سنه رابعه واشتغل منه؟وكده نكون فقدنا الهدف من البحث العلمى !!!!!!!!!!!!
ولا استنا لحد ما ننزل الكليه وادور فالمكتبه وانا ورزقى بقى؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟
ولا الغى الفكره خالص واريح نفسى
انا كل حلمى دلوقتى الاقى موقع او بحث علمى بيتكلم عن الموضوع ده
او حتى كتاب وانا والله عندى استعداد اقرا
فياريت لو حد عنده فكره يساعدنى
ولو حد من الدكاتره بقدر يساعدنى يبقى كتر الف خيره قبل ما اتجن واخلص


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wessam
مراقبه عامه على القسم الأدبى
مراقبه عامه على  القسم الأدبى

عدد المساهمات : 1289
تاريخ التسجيل : 22/09/2009
العمر : 30

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: نداء استغاثه

مُساهمة من طرف نورينان في الثلاثاء 16 فبراير 2010, 9:59 pm

انا والله بجد لوعرفت عن موضوع بحثك حاجه
هجبها ليكى ولو اقدر اساعدك مش هتاخر
وربنا معاكى


الدنيا مسألة ......حسابية
خذ من اليوم......... عبرة
ومن الامس..........خبرة
اطرح منها التعب والشقاء
واجمع لهن الحب والوفاء
واترك الباقىلرب السماء




__________________
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نورينان
مشرفه قسم حواء

عدد المساهمات : 977
تاريخ التسجيل : 07/12/2009
العمر : 27
الموقع : secret

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: نداء استغاثه

مُساهمة من طرف محبة الله في الثلاثاء 16 فبراير 2010, 10:01 pm

اختى وحببتى فى الله وسام
خليكى مستمرة على هدفك وبدام نيتك خالصة لوجه الله ان شاء الله على طول حببتى هتلاقى بس الحل انك تدورى فى المكتبة
وحببتى بدام مهتمة جامد ونفسك بجد
انزلى الجامعة من بكرة مش من الدراسة
وادخلى المكتبة هو مش عادى ولا فى قنا ما ينفع تقريبا عادى
بس انتى ادعى ربنا وربنا هييسر الامور سبحانه
ويا سلام بجد لو نزلتى ولقيت حد ممكن يقدر يفيدك اكتر من الدكترة فى الجامعة وربنا ييسر ليكى ان شاء الله وتخدى كتب تفيدك
وتساعدك
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محبة الله
عضو فضى
عضو فضى

عدد المساهمات : 2104
تاريخ التسجيل : 11/11/2009
العمر : 25

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: نداء استغاثه

مُساهمة من طرف wessam في الثلاثاء 16 فبراير 2010, 10:28 pm

شكرا نورينان ع ردك
محبة الله تسلمى يا فمر
والله حلوه فكرة انى انزل الكليه وخصوصا انى بعدى عليها كل يوم بس تفتكرى موظفين المكتبه هيكونو موجودين
والله لو حد شافنى هناك هبقولو عليا مجنونه رسمى ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟
الناس لما صدقت تاخد اجازه وانا نازله فالاجازه
بس اهو حل حلو وهحطه فقايمة الحلول


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avatar
wessam
مراقبه عامه على القسم الأدبى
مراقبه عامه على  القسم الأدبى

عدد المساهمات : 1289
تاريخ التسجيل : 22/09/2009
العمر : 30

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: نداء استغاثه

مُساهمة من طرف محبة الله في الثلاثاء 16 فبراير 2010, 10:36 pm

لا والله ولا مجنونة ولا حاجة ست العقلين حببتى
وان شاء الله طبعا هتلاقى الموظفين بس هما هيستغربوا عليكى بس
بس لو ممكن حد يحسدك بلاش صحتك بالدنيا بهزر ههههههههههه
حببتى روحى وخليها على الله
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محبة الله
عضو فضى
عضو فضى

عدد المساهمات : 2104
تاريخ التسجيل : 11/11/2009
العمر : 25

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: نداء استغاثه

مُساهمة من طرف wessam في الجمعة 19 فبراير 2010, 4:39 pm

شكرا يا محبة الله وانا فعلا ان شاء الله انزل مكتبة الكليه ويارب تفيدنى


If U See It In Ur Mind .U re going to hold it in ur hand
avatar
wessam
مراقبه عامه على القسم الأدبى
مراقبه عامه على  القسم الأدبى

عدد المساهمات : 1289
تاريخ التسجيل : 22/09/2009
العمر : 30

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: نداء استغاثه

مُساهمة من طرف حازم شاهين في الجمعة 26 فبراير 2010, 11:53 pm

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله

الأخت العزيزة د.وسام

هناك حلقات جميلة جدا تعرض في قناة
Animal Planet or Discovary Channel

و هي عن موضوع

Animal crime scene

وهي تعرض عن الجرائم التى قد يكون السبب فيها الحيوانات البرية مثل النمور أو القطط البرية أو القروش

يوجد كتاب ايضا بعنوان
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
Animal Cruelty Investigations

و هو موجود بالمنديات و هو عندي

و تحت امرك لو احتجتى لشئ و الله الموفق
avatar
حازم شاهين
عضو هيئه التدريس
عضو  هيئه التدريس

عدد المساهمات : 184
تاريخ التسجيل : 23/11/2009
العمر : 47
الموقع : عضو هيئة تدريس - قسم الفارماكولوجيا

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: نداء استغاثه

مُساهمة من طرف wessam في السبت 27 فبراير 2010, 1:13 pm

شكرا د.حازم لرد حضرتك عالموضوع
لانى فعلا كنت محتاجه حاجه تتكلم عن الموضوع ده
ودورت كتير جدا وروحت المكتبه وفالاخر ملقتش
وسالت د.محمد نجيب اللى ادى ندوه عن البروسيلا مع د.اسماء من كام شهر عندنا فالكليه
وهو للاسف اقنعنى انى اشتغل فموضوع تانى لان موضوع مسرح الجريمه فالحيوانات ده مش شغال فمصر ومحدش هيستفيد منه اوى هنا لو اشتغلت عليه
فانا حاليا بدور فمواضيع تانيه ويارب الاقى حاجه مفيده ونفس الوقت تكون محط اهتمام الجميع
ولو حضرتك عندك اقتراحت لاى موضوع نشتغل فيه يكون جزاك الله خيرا لانى للاسف كل ما اشتغل على اى موضوع اتفاجااانه مش شغال فمصر
والله انا احترت مصر ديه شغال فيها ايه بظبط
فشكرا لحضرتك يا د..حازم


If U See It In Ur Mind .U re going to hold it in ur hand
avatar
wessam
مراقبه عامه على القسم الأدبى
مراقبه عامه على  القسم الأدبى

عدد المساهمات : 1289
تاريخ التسجيل : 22/09/2009
العمر : 30

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: نداء استغاثه

مُساهمة من طرف حازم شاهين في السبت 27 فبراير 2010, 11:50 pm

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله

هل الشغل ده لماجستير أو دكتوراه
أرجو التوضيح
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حازم شاهين
عضو هيئه التدريس
عضو  هيئه التدريس

عدد المساهمات : 184
تاريخ التسجيل : 23/11/2009
العمر : 47
الموقع : عضو هيئة تدريس - قسم الفارماكولوجيا

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: نداء استغاثه

مُساهمة من طرف حازم شاهين في السبت 27 فبراير 2010, 11:51 pm

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله

هل الشغل ده لماجستير أو دكتوراه
أرجو التوضيح
avatar
حازم شاهين
عضو هيئه التدريس
عضو  هيئه التدريس

عدد المساهمات : 184
تاريخ التسجيل : 23/11/2009
العمر : 47
الموقع : عضو هيئة تدريس - قسم الفارماكولوجيا

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: نداء استغاثه

مُساهمة من طرف wessam في الأحد 28 فبراير 2010, 12:00 am

لا يا دكتور
انا فسنه خمسه
لكن احنا عاملين يوم عاملين فيه مجاميع بحثيه
كل جروب هيشتغل على موضوع علمى اى موضوع هما يختارو وبعدين يعمل له presesntation
وبعدين الحاجات ديه هتقيم
الهدف منها تدريب لسنه خامسه على مهارات الالقاء والعرض وفنفس الوقت مهارات البحث عن الموضوعات العلميه لان زى ما حضرتك عارف احنا معندناش خبره فالمواضيع ديه


If U See It In Ur Mind .U re going to hold it in ur hand
avatar
wessam
مراقبه عامه على القسم الأدبى
مراقبه عامه على  القسم الأدبى

عدد المساهمات : 1289
تاريخ التسجيل : 22/09/2009
العمر : 30

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: نداء استغاثه

مُساهمة من طرف حازم شاهين في الأحد 28 فبراير 2010, 12:28 am

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله

"التحديات الراهنة والتطلُّعات المُستقبليَّة للطب البيطري"/جامعة القاهرة-مصر [url=http://baitaryqena.yoo7.com/javascript:void window.open('http://www.aaru.edu.jo//index2.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=263&Itemid=38&pop=1&page=0', 'win2', 'status=no,toolbar=no,scrollbars=yes,titlebar=no,menubar=no,resizable=yes,width=640,height=480,directories=no,location=no');] [/url]
INVITATION & CALL FOR PAPERS

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University declares the first announcement for its 10th Scientific Conference (2nd International) to be held in Hurghada in October 19-22, 2009. Conference Title:


"CURRENT CHALLENGES AND FUTURE PROSPECTS OF VETERINARY MEDICINE",
Under the Scene of

"Towards one World, One Health"

التحديات الراهنة والتطلُّعات المُستقبليَّة للطب البيطري
”نحو عالمٍ واحد، صِحةٍ واحِدة“
Scope & Conference Topics
The outflow of events and emergence of new outbreaks among humans and animals represents a real challenge facing Physicians, Veterinarians, Agro-Scientists and other Scientists interested in Animal and Human Health and the impact of microbial and non-microbial pollution on the ecosystem and environment, to mitigate the hazard posed by such pollutants. Therefore you are all invited to participate and submit your research article and take part in panel discussions. the objectives of the conference will be covered through the following topics:

1. Environmental Physiology and Hygiene.
2. Microbial and Non-Microbial Environmental Pollution.
3. Pharmaco-Kinetics/Dynamics, Chemotherapy and Drug Abuse.
4. Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses.
5. Veterinary Vaccine Development Aided by New Technology.
6. Biotechnology of Reproduction.
7. Fish Diseases & Aquaculture Pollution.
8. Veterinary Education and Quality Assurance.
9. Parasitic Infestation.
10. Arthropod Borne Infections in Livestock.
11. Regenerative Veterinary Surgery.
12. Global Feed Challenges in Animals and Poultry Industries.
Please find attached the brochure of the 2nd international conference of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University. The conference will be held in the most beautiful Egyptian coastal city “Hurghada". While participating in the conference events, you can enjoy swimming, scuba-diving and fishing in the crystal clear water of Red Sea. Moreover, you can ride the glass boat to have a close view to the coral reefs and the most colorful creatures in the world of fishes at the bottom of the red sea. Finally, you will enjoy interacting with the great presentations, lectures and discussions of many of the renounced professor in all fields of veterinary medicine from allover the Middle East, Europe and North America. Hope to see you all to enjoy this great scientific festival and warm Egyptian gesture.
كان مؤتمر الطب البيطري بجامعة القاهرة و هو بعنوان
"التحديات الراهنة والتطلُّعات المُستقبليَّة للطب البيطري"/جامعة القاهرة-مصر [url=http://baitaryqena.yoo7.com/javascript:void window.open('http://www.aaru.edu.jo//index2.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=263&Itemid=38&pop=1&page=0', 'win2', 'status=no,toolbar=no,scrollbars=yes,titlebar=no,menubar=no,resizable=yes,width=640,height=480,directories=no,location=no');] [/url]
INVITATION & CALL FOR PAPERS

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University declares the first announcement for its 10th Scientific Conference (2nd International) to be held in Hurghada in October 19-22, 2009. Conference Title:


"CURRENT CHALLENGES AND FUTURE PROSPECTS OF VETERINARY MEDICINE",
Under the Scene of

"Towards one World, One Health"

التحديات الراهنة والتطلُّعات المُستقبليَّة للطب البيطري
”نحو عالمٍ واحد، صِحةٍ واحِدة“
Scope & Conference Topics
The outflow of events and emergence of new outbreaks among humans and animals represents a real challenge facing Physicians, Veterinarians, Agro-Scientists and other Scientists interested in Animal and Human Health and the impact of microbial and non-microbial pollution on the ecosystem and environment, to mitigate the hazard posed by such pollutants. Therefore you are all invited to participate and submit your research article and take part in panel discussions. the objectives of the conference will be covered through the following topics:

1. Environmental Physiology and Hygiene.
2. Microbial and Non-Microbial Environmental Pollution.
3. Pharmaco-Kinetics/Dynamics, Chemotherapy and Drug Abuse.
4. Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses.
5. Veterinary Vaccine Development Aided by New Technology.
6. Biotechnology of Reproduction.
7. Fish Diseases & Aquaculture Pollution.
8. Veterinary Education and Quality Assurance.
9. Parasitic Infestation.
10. Arthropod Borne Infections in Livestock.
11. Regenerative Veterinary Surgery.
12. Global Feed Challenges in Animals and Poultry Industries.
Please find attached the brochure of the 2nd international conference of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University. The conference will be held in the most beautiful Egyptian coastal city “Hurghada". While participating in the conference events, you can enjoy swimming, scuba-diving and fishing in the crystal clear water of Red Sea. Moreover, you can ride the glass boat to have a close view to the coral reefs and the most colorful creatures in the world of fishes at the bottom of the red sea. Finally, you will enjoy interacting with the great presentations, lectures and discussions of many of the renounced professor in all fields of veterinary medicine from allover the Middle East, Europe and North America. Hope to see you all to enjoy this great scientific festival and warm Egyptian gesture.
"التحديات الراهنة والتطلُّعات المُستقبليَّة للطب البيطري"/جامعة القاهرة-مصر [url=http://baitaryqena.yoo7.com/javascript:void window.open('http://www.aaru.edu.jo//index2.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=263&Itemid=38&pop=1&page=0', 'win2', 'status=no,toolbar=no,scrollbars=yes,titlebar=no,menubar=no,resizable=yes,width=640,height=480,directories=no,location=no');] [/url]
INVITATION & CALL FOR PAPERS

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University declares the first announcement for its 10th Scientific Conference (2nd International) to be held in Hurghada in October 19-22, 2009. Conference Title:


"CURRENT CHALLENGES AND FUTURE PROSPECTS OF VETERINARY MEDICINE",
Under the Scene of

"Towards one World, One Health"

التحديات الراهنة والتطلُّعات المُستقبليَّة للطب البيطري
”نحو عالمٍ واحد، صِحةٍ واحِدة“
Scope & Conference Topics
The outflow of events and emergence of new outbreaks among humans and animals represents a real challenge facing Physicians, Veterinarians, Agro-Scientists and other Scientists interested in Animal and Human Health and the impact of microbial and non-microbial pollution on the ecosystem and environment, to mitigate the hazard posed by such pollutants. Therefore you are all invited to participate and submit your research article and take part in panel discussions. the objectives of the conference will be covered through the following topics:

1. Environmental Physiology and Hygiene.
2. Microbial and Non-Microbial Environmental Pollution.
3. Pharmaco-Kinetics/Dynamics, Chemotherapy and Drug Abuse.
4. Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses.
5. Veterinary Vaccine Development Aided by New Technology.
6. Biotechnology of Reproduction.
7. Fish Diseases & Aquaculture Pollution.
8. Veterinary Education and Quality Assurance.
9. Parasitic Infestation.
10. Arthropod Borne Infections in Livestock.
11. Regenerative Veterinary Surgery.
12. Global Feed Challenges in Animals and Poultry Industries.
Please find attached the brochure of the 2nd international conference of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University. The conference will be held in the most beautiful Egyptian coastal city “Hurghada". While participating in the conference events, you can enjoy swimming, scuba-diving and fishing in the crystal clear water of Red Sea. Moreover, you can ride the glass boat to have a close view to the coral reefs and the most colorful creatures in the world of fishes at the bottom of the red sea. Finally, you will enjoy interacting with the great presentations, lectures and discussions of many of the renounced professor in all fields of veterinary medicine from allover the Middle East, Europe and North America. Hope to see you all to enjoy this great scientific festival and warm Egyptian gesture.
"التحديات الراهنة والتطلُّعات المُستقبليَّة للطب البيطري"/جامعة القاهرة-مصر [url=http://baitaryqena.yoo7.com/javascript:void window.open('http://www.aaru.edu.jo//index2.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=263&Itemid=38&pop=1&page=0', 'win2', 'status=no,toolbar=no,scrollbars=yes,titlebar=no,menubar=no,resizable=yes,width=640,height=480,directories=no,location=no');] [/url]
INVITATION & CALL FOR PAPERS

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University declares the first announcement for its 10th Scientific Conference (2nd International) to be held in Hurghada in October 19-22, 2009. Conference Title:


"CURRENT CHALLENGES AND FUTURE PROSPECTS OF VETERINARY MEDICINE",
Under the Scene of

"Towards one World, One Health"

التحديات الراهنة والتطلُّعات المُستقبليَّة للطب البيطري
”نحو عالمٍ واحد، صِحةٍ واحِدة“
Scope & Conference Topics
The outflow of events and emergence of new outbreaks among humans and animals represents a real challenge facing Physicians, Veterinarians, Agro-Scientists and other Scientists interested in Animal and Human Health and the impact of microbial and non-microbial pollution on the ecosystem and environment, to mitigate the hazard posed by such pollutants. Therefore you are all invited to participate and submit your research article and take part in panel discussions. the objectives of the conference will be covered through the following topics:

1. Environmental Physiology and Hygiene.
2. Microbial and Non-Microbial Environmental Pollution.
3. Pharmaco-Kinetics/Dynamics, Chemotherapy and Drug Abuse.
4. Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses.
5. Veterinary Vaccine Development Aided by New Technology.
6. Biotechnology of Reproduction.
7. Fish Diseases & Aquaculture Pollution.
8. Veterinary Education and Quality Assurance.
9. Parasitic Infestation.
10. Arthropod Borne Infections in Livestock.
11. Regenerative Veterinary Surgery.
12. Global Feed Challenges in Animals and Poultry Industries.
Please find attached the brochure of the 2nd international conference of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University. The conference will be held in the most beautiful Egyptian coastal city “Hurghada". While participating in the conference events, you can enjoy swimming, scuba-diving and fishing in the crystal clear water of Red Sea. Moreover, you can ride the glass boat to have a close view to the coral reefs and the most colorful creatures in the world of fishes at the bottom of the red sea. Finally, you will enjoy interacting with the great presentations, lectures and discussions of many of the renounced professor in all fields of veterinary medicine from allover the Middle East, Europe and North America. Hope to see you all to enjoy this great scientific festival and warm Egyptian gesture.


"التحديات الراهنة والتطلُّعات المُستقبليَّة للطب البيطري"





Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University , its 10th Scientific Conference (2nd International) in Hurghada in October 19-22, 2009. Conference Title:



"CURRENT CHALLENGES AND FUTURE PROSPECTS OF VETERINARY MEDICINE",
Under the Scene of

"Towards one World, One Health"

التحديات الراهنة والتطلُّعات المُستقبليَّة للطب البيطري
نحو عالمٍ واحد، صِحةٍ واحِدة


Scope & Conference Topics

The outflow of events and emergence of new outbreaks among humans and animals represents a real challenge facing Physicians, Veterinarians, Agro-Scientists and other Scientists interested in Animal and Human Health and the impact of microbial and non-microbial pollution on the ecosystem and environment, to mitigate the hazard posed by such pollutants. Therefore you are all invited to participate and submit your research article and take part in panel discussions. the objectives of the conference will be covered through the following topics:



1. Environmental Physiology and Hygiene.

2. Microbial and Non-Microbial Environmental Pollution.

3. Pharmaco-Kinetics/Dynamics, Chemotherapy and Drug Abuse.

4. Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses.

5. Veterinary Vaccine Development Aided by New Technology.

6. Biotechnology of Reproduction.

7. Fish Diseases & Aquaculture Pollution.

8. Veterinary Education and Quality Assurance.

9. Parasitic Infestation.

10. Arthropod Borne Infections in Livestock.

11. Regenerative Veterinary Surgery.

12. Global Feed Challenges in Animals and Poultry Industries.

Please find attached the brochure of the 2nd international conference of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University. The conference will be held in the most beautiful Egyptian coastal city “Hurghada". While participating in the conference events, you can enjoy swimming, scuba-diving and fishing in the crystal clear water of Red Sea. Moreover, you can ride the glass boat to have a close view to the coral reefs and the most colorful creatures in the world of fishes at the bottom of the red sea. Finally, you will enjoy interacting with the great presentations, lectures and discussions of many of the renounced professor in all fields of veterinary medicine from allover the Middle East, Europe and North America. Hope to see you all to enjoy this great scientific festival and warm Egyptian gesture.




و أقترح عليكم هذا الموضوع :



Biotechnology of Reproduction and Farm Animals Welfare



Introduction

Based on the progress in scientific knowledge of endocrinology, reproductive physiology, cell biology and embryology during the last fifty years new biotechniques have been developed for and introduced into animal breeding and husbandry. Among them are oestrussynchronisation/induction, artificial insemination, multiple ovulation induction and embryo transfer (MOET), in vitro embryo production (IVP) and cloning by nuclear transfer (NT). The aims of these reproductive technologies were initially to speed up the genetic improvements of farm animals by the increase of offspring of selected males and females and the reduction of the generation intervals. The technique of cloning by nuclear transfer is mainly applied for experimental purposes, with the prospect of a more practical implementation in the near future, with the aims of the enhancement of the uniformity of herds for an easier management or for the multiplication of transgenic animals after gene-targeting.

Parallel to these developments public concern about new biotechnologies has grown, and call now, anno 2000, scientists to account. Although concerns of the general public may be related to a variety of reasons (i.e.: fear for food quality, the aversion for the attidude of playing God, or the feeling that something happens which cannot be controlled and will lead to an unwanted society), an important part of societal concerns seems to involve questions about the welfare of the animals, even though solid information on the consequences of new biotechnologies for animal welfare is generally lacking. Also scientists directly involved in the development of new biotechnologies have recognized the importance of animal welfare, but, perhaps understandably, their prime concern is technological progress. Thus, animal welfare is often treated as an ethical or public perception issue rather than as a biological one, and, so far, scientist in the field of farm animal biotechnology generally fail to specify concrete steps to monitor and prevent possibly adverse effects of the treatments imposed.

In this paper we evaluate the subsequent technologies and judge them on their effects on animal welfare by use of biologically measurable parameters. We argue that the welfare of farm animals requires special attention. We would like to suggest that the introduction of new biotechniques into farm animal husbandry should be accompanied by a study of health and welfare with the help of a comprehensive welfare protocol for the benefit of a sustainable animal production.

In this paper, we provide evidence demonstrating that new biotechnologies may have profound and negative effects on essential biological functions and systems in the animals involved, and, hence, may detrimentally affect animal welfare. Therefore, we argue that within the context of farm animal biotechnologies, animal welfare should receive special attention. We would like to suggest that the introduction of new biotechnologies into farm animal husbandry should be accompanied by systematic and scientifically valid studies into the effects on animal welfare, with the help of a comprehensive welfare protocol.

Sustainable production

Incompatible with sustainable production is in our opinion each situation in which the animal cannot reproduce anymore without help of one of the modern techniques. Since the new techniques are aimed to accelerate the selection for some traits, the results of a particular breeding programme can be incompatible with sustainable production. For example, the selection of turkeys for meet production has lead to large and overweighted cocks in such a way that fertilisation of the hens can only be done by A.I.. The double muscled belgium blue cows cannot reproduce without the help of the caesarian section. Transfer of embryos of meat cows into dairy cows may lead to more dystocia, etc. Not the techniques themselves are by definition incompatible with animal welfare but the goals for what these techniques are used.

Incompatible with sustainable production is also the situation in which the public concerns about animal welfare in connection with the modern reproductive biotechnologies leads to abjuration of the farm products.

Artificial insemination

The most universally adopted (zoo)technique in cattle seems to trigger little concerns. Nobody has thought that A.I. may already be deviated from the natural situation. However, palpation of the genital tract per rectum as well as the artificial insemination into the uterine cavity cause an increase in plasma cortisol levels as demonstrated by Nakao et al., (1994). When genetically valuable bulls will not mount on a dummy or on living animals (lack of libido) they often are subjected to electrostimulation to induce an ejaculation. This procedure leads to a strong release of ACTH, followed by a rise in cortisol levels (Colenbrander et al., personal communication). The question can be raised whether a rising cortisol level is an indication of stress and seriously affected welfare. But in many other species of small farm animals including sheep, there is a trend towards the use of more invasive insemination procedures, like intrauterine insemination via laparoscopy or laparotomy with minimal anaesthesia. It is argued by breeder organisations that with experienced operators the stress is minimal. They found little evidence that a single laparoscopic procedure affects stress sensitive physiological events like the timing of ovulation (Walker et al., 1986). Notwithstanding these opinions, objective measurements have to be developed to judge the degree of stress.

Oestrussynchronisation and oestrusinduction

Oestrussynchronisation has been developed in the early sixties of the last century. It started with methods based on the artificial replacement of a corpus luteum by progestagens. Withdrawal of the progestagen device, either a sponge (sheep), a PRID or ear implant (cattle) at one moment for the whole herd resulted in the synchronous oestrus. The techniques were aimed to help a large scaled introduction of A.I. in the sheep industry and in the extensive beef industry. The fertility of the herd in the synchronized oestrus was compromised and lowered by 10 to 15%. Research to understand what was going on revealed that synchronisation of the oestrus does not mean a concurrently synchronisation of the genital tract (Kruip 1972; 1973). The results lead to the assumption that 15% reduction of the fertility is due to low fertilisation during the synchronised oestrus and/or early embryonic death. Whether this is compatible with animal welfare and sustainable production has to be discussed. Till the moment that cryopreservation of embryos was introduced, the oestrus synchronisation was used in embryo transfer for the synchronisation of donors and recipients. Oestrusinduction is based mainly on the same treatments with the same drugs. In many cases it will be used as a medication of animals suffering of sub- or even anoestrus. But even then one should asked whether that treatment is more or less a symptom contest. Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer

Both multiple ovulation induction and embryo transfer are generally accepted technologies. However, the transfer of embryos after multiple ovulation has given increase in embryonic death, larger calves with longer gestation times, and more dystocia (van Wagtendonk-de Leeuw et al. 2000).

Although, at present, the mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown, multiple ovulation induction has been found to be associated with a number of disturbances which might be linked to these abnormalities. Firstly, multiple ovulation induction can lead to an asynchrony in the development of the preovulatory follicle and the meiotic process of the oocyte (deLoos 1992; Hyttel et al. 1986). Secondly, the growth of a cohort follicles results in abnormally high oestradiol-17b (E2) before and in high progesterone (P4) levels after ovulation, respectively. It has been demonstrated that high levels of E2 affect the microtubular organisation, meiosis and extrusion of polar bodies (Kruip et al. 1988). Earlier and higher P4 levels may affect the uterine environment and result in asynchrony between the developmental stage of the embryo and the uterine environment at the moment of transfer. P4 treatment during the first 3 days of pregnancy has been shown to promote the development of advanced embryos in the uterus (Wilmut et al. 1981; Klemann et al.1994). Transfer of advanced embryos, i.e. longer embryos with more cells, increases the rate of abnormalities in resulting calves (Lazzari et al., personal communication). Moreover, in a study of Dorland et al. (1993), a high percentages of mixoploid embryos was detected, as well as one totally haploid and one completely triploid embryo, after superovulation. These abnormal configurations of nuclear chromosomes cannot be detected by examining the morphology of the embryos. The embryos look good and will be transfered. According to Karwasky et al. (1996), 27- 45% of the embryos after multiple ovulation induction have an abnormal karyogram and are expected to die shortly before or after attachment.

The welfare of oocyte/embryo donors and recipients

In addition to well-documented and clearly undesirable side-effects on the offspring, it is conceivable that MOET, IVP and NT, may also negatively affect the welfare of the oocyte donor or the recipients of embryos. An obvious source for reduced welfare of the recipients of transfered embryos is the enhanced probability of dystocia after MOET, IVP and NT.

It might be speculated that, because of a considerable increase of the size of the ovaries, multiple ovulation induction in cattle is associated with pain, especially during manual palpation. Although the needle puncture through the vaginal wall of the oocyte donor is invasive, repeated puncture for OPU was not accompanied by adhesions or any pathological changes in the tissue (Kruip et al.1994).

An other question is whether the flushing of the uterus is always without any measurable negative effect? For the large species like cattle and horse the flushing can be done non-surgically, but for other species like sheep and goats, the collection of embryos has to be done surgically. In the pig, embryo collection can only be performed after surgical shortening of the uterus. Those animals can not reproduce anymore naturally. In the face of these facts, published data on negative effects on animal welfare in this particular situations are currently lacking.

Ovum Pick-up & Embryo production in vitro

A very good alternative for superovulation induction and embryo flushing is the recently developed series of technologies like non-surgical transvaginal ultrasound guided ovum pick-up (OPU) followed by in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilisation (IVF) and embryo culture (IVC) up to the blastocyst stage (Pieterse et al. 1988; Kruip et al. 1991; Kruip et al. 1994).

There is a large body of evidence demonstrating that, in comparison with in vivo produced controls, the size and weight of IVP calves is higher (30% over 50 kg), the gestation time of IVP calves longer, the % dystocia and the incidence of caesarean sections is much higher as well as the % abortions and perinatal death (Behboodi et al., 1995; Kruip and DenDaas 1997; Van Wagtendonk-de Leeuw et al.1998; 2000). In general the calves are less active and vital (Reinders et al. 1995). In addition, the % of hydroallantois and congenital malformations, including abnormal limbs and spinal cords, is increased in IVP calves and lambs. Taken together, these problems are defined as the large offspring syndrome (LOS)(Young et al., 1998). Farin & Farin (1995) and Sinclair et al. (1997) found a differential growth of different organs (liver, heart, kidneys and adrenal gland) after IVP. Postnatally some IVP calves have obvious anomalies (deRoos et al. 2000).

Epidemiological studies in humans provided evidence for the association between prenatal life and adult diseases or susceptibility to diseases (Barker 1995). Why should that be different in animals. Birth weight is one of the first parameters to pay attention to for the judgement of normal development. Although an embryo/fetus will develop according to its genome, the activity of the genome can be influenced epigenetically by environmental factors. Along that way the lifetime, the health of organs, malformations and anomalies, abnormal karyograms, gestation length, birth weight and neonatal problems can be introduced. Most of them by inproper differentiation of the mesoderm, ectoderm and entoderm. One can suggest that these differentiation, driven by the expression of developmentally important genes, should have been programmed already in the ovary in the oocyte or in the genital tract or in culture in the embryo. This programming occurs on special critical periods of embryogenesis (Wilson et al. 1995). Changes in the timing of the expression of these genes induce malformations later in development and might explain some birth defects. Good examples of these are the HOX genes. Many data are available to support the relevance of this statement (Boerjan et al. 2000). Compaction and blastulation are affected by culture conditions. The same can be said about the differentiation of the inner cell mass. Differentiation means onset of gene expression. Recent studies have collected good data to support this concept (Wrenzicky et al. 2000; Young et al. 2000) of disturbed gene expressions. Special genes that are affected by culture conditions are the imprinted genes (Young 2000). Demethylation of the IGF2rec gene in in vitro produced mice embryos lead to abnormalities like oversized offspring (Lau et al. 1997).

The most important question is now: how can the IVP culture protocol or transfer protocols affect the molecular and morphogenetic processes govering the phylotypic period? The hypothesis and possible answer is: "Just by inadequate conditions either in the culture or later in the uterine environment" as pronounced by many speakers during the IETS satellite symposium "Embryonic origin of animal health and welfare" (Dieleman et al. 2000). IVP embryos misses in their first cleavages obviously the interaction with the mother or comparable environment. Serum seems to be one factor that has this effect on the genome or on the mitochondria, changing the intra cellular metabolism.

The use of immature oocytes coming from atretic follicles might be an other reason for the problems observed sofar. It has been speculate (Kruip et al. 2000) that the imprinting is lost due to atresia of the follicle or during the maturation in vitro. If true, the selection of COCs is for that reason very important to avoid or to reduce the % problems. In fact, the selection of the COC is the first act that should and can be controlled much better in order to prevent problems as LOS.

Cloning by nuclear transfer

Similar to MOET and IVP, NT has also been shown to induce LOS symptoms in resulting offspring, including high rates of peri- and postnatal death (Willadsen 1991; Garry et al. 1996; Kato et al. 1998; Chavatte-Palmer et al. 2000; McCreath et al. 2000). The occurrence of LOS symptoms after NT may be related to in vitro embryo manipulations also used in MOET and IVP, for example IVC or embryo transfer, but also to factors specifically associated with NT. Firstly, donor nuclei transferred to enucleated oocytes have to go through the process of genetic reprogramming, which is the transformation from the pattern of gene expression that is characteristic of the donor cell to one that is appropriate for early embryonic development. This process may be incomplete and result in inappropriate patterns of gene expression. Secondly, NT involves the exposure of reconstructed oocytes to various environmental stimuli intended to facilitate fusion between nucleus and recipient cytoplasm, for example electric shock or treatment with protein inhibitors (Brower 1998; Campbell 1999; Colman 1998; 2000). Such stimuli may disrupt epigenetic modifications of imprinted genes. The relative contributions of in vitro embryo culture or nuclear transfer to the induction of abnormality remain to be determined (Wilmut et al. 1998; Hill et al. 1999; Young and Fairburn 2000). Theoretically, any procedure at any stage of the sequential process of in vitro embryo production and manipulation (e.g., in vitro maturation of oocytes or in vitro fertilization) may influence embryo development and characteristics of offspring (Van Wagtendonk-de Leeuw et al. 2000).

Welfare protocol

We conclude that there are convincing arguments to support the idea that treatments, applied in farm animal biotechnology, in their effects on animal welfare are by no means biologically neutral. On the contrary, several treatments appear to directly threaten the animal's pre- and postnatal survival. Therefore, we believe that within the context of farm animal biotechnologies, animal welfare should receive special attention.

We propose to systematically monitor welfare of animals involved in, or produced by, new biotechnologies, and to evaluate potential risks of these technologies, on the basis of a comprehensive welfare protocol. This protocol would have to specify: 1) which treatment groups to compare, and the number of subjects needed, 2) which parameters to monitor, and 3) at which stages of farm animal's life. Although a (limited) number of studies specifically addressing side-effects of in vitro reproductive technologies or transgenesis have been reported (Walker et al. 1996; Van Reenen and Blokhuis 1997; De Sousa et al. 2000), currently such a welfare protocol does not exist. Some initial ideas are considered below.

Ad 1) One of the main goals of the implementation of a welfare protocol would be the accurate and unbiased estimation of the essential treatment effects, i.e. of MOET, IVP or NT. An essential condition in this respect would be the inclusion of adequate control groups, in sufficient numbers, e.g.: in vivo produced offspring with the same genetic background as the in vitro produced treatment group. With respect to the evaluation of effects of NT, the experimental design should allow for separating effects of inadequate reprogramming of the transferred nucleus/genome as much as possible from effects of reproductive technologies used in the process of generating cloned animals. This will require specific breeding steps (Smith et al. 1987; Gibson 1998).

The sensitivity of a welfare protocol in terms of the ability to detect relevant effects if they do exist, is greatly influenced by the number of animals investigated. It will be easy to reliably identify in vitro embryo manipulations with extremely unfavourable effects, but large numbers of animals will be needed to detect smaller, but still biologically relevant, harmful effects of nuclear transfer.

Ad 2) Relevant parameters and biological functions that are clearly associated with welfare are: clinical symptoms of health or disease, measures of growth and fertility, measures of immunoresistance and behavioural measures. Parameters for a welfare protocol could also be provided by immunotoxicological (Luster et al. 1994; Van Loveren et al. 1995, 1998) or pharmacological disciplines (Martinod 1995).

We propose to formulate, for each of the important livestock species involved infarm animal biotechnology, a basic set of welfare parameters, encompassing a cross-section of the most essential parameters and biological functions, the scope of which could then be adjusted, either extended or reduced, according to the specific properties of the treatment under observation. For example, in a study on the welfare of offspring of a transgenic bull carrying a human lactoferrin transgene designed to express in udder tissue of lactating transgenic females, next to parameters concerning growth, general health, behaviour, reproduction and immunocompetence, specific measures on milk production, characteristics of milk and udder health were included in the protocol (Van Reenen and Blokhuis, 1973;1997). Protocols used for the evaluation of in vitro reproductive technologies should involve observations appropriate for detecting LOS symptoms, such as specific measures of neonatal vitality and viability, or ultrasound measurements to investigate disproportionate organ development (Garry et al. 1996; Van Wagtendonk-de Leeuw et al. 2000). In addition to these parameters some molecular biological indices should be incorporated in the protocol, especially those that would enable to assess and reduce the risks of impaired welfare. A promising concept considers gene expression profiles in preimplantation embryos of imprinted genes (Niemann and Wrenzycki 2000).

3) Stages of life. The stages of life of a farm animal at which to monitor welfare aspects should, in our view, at least include: (a) gestation and birth, (b) the developmental phase from birth to puberty, and (c) a representative period of adult life, including the stage of (re)productive performance. Investigations up to senescence could have scientific value, but need not necessarily be relevant for all farm animals since their productive lives usually represent only part of the entire possible life-span.

Conclusion

MOET, including synchronisation and induction of oestrus and AI, as well as IVP, NT may have undesirable and sometimes serious consequences for farm animal welfare. We suggest that (potential) risks of biotechnologies for farm animal welfare should be comprehensively and systematically assessed. This type of research should be multidisciplinary, should be logically integrated into ongoing research programmes, and and should make use of appropriate and scientifically valid experimental designs and protocols. Results obtained accordingly allow for developing and using the safest biotechnological methods and procedures, and, thereby, enable technological progress which is ethically justified, and beneficial for socieity in general as well as the scientific and agricultural community.

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تاريخ التسجيل : 23/11/2009
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حازم شاهين
عضو هيئه التدريس
عضو  هيئه التدريس

عدد المساهمات : 184
تاريخ التسجيل : 23/11/2009
العمر : 47
الموقع : عضو هيئة تدريس - قسم الفارماكولوجيا

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رد: نداء استغاثه

مُساهمة من طرف wessam في الأحد 28 فبراير 2010, 12:43 am

شكرا جدا يا د.حازم
وانا ان شاء الله همسك المواضيع ديه بترتيب وهشوف امكانية انى اشتغل عليها فالبحث
وبجد جزاك الله الف خير لان حضرتك دايما بتخدمنا كتير جدا عالمنتدى
شكرا مره تانيه


If U See It In Ur Mind .U re going to hold it in ur hand
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wessam
مراقبه عامه على القسم الأدبى
مراقبه عامه على  القسم الأدبى

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تاريخ التسجيل : 22/09/2009
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رد: نداء استغاثه

مُساهمة من طرف almaster في الجمعة 03 سبتمبر 2010, 7:40 pm

السلام عليكم ورحمه الله وبركاته انا حازم لو محتاجه استفسار قانونى او اى معلومه قضائيه انا موجود
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almaster
عضو جديد
عضو جديد

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تاريخ التسجيل : 29/08/2010
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